Chapter 28 - Intro Acknowledge and Notes

Dr Lynn Embrey

In the late 1980s and early 1990s I assisted Shirley Schneider with the physical preparation of the WA Senior Women’s team and my attention was drawn to the teams of the 1950s which had been so successful. I wondered why. I began to understand a little when I met Val Johnson at the 1991 Senior Women’s national championships in Adelaide. During a barbeque lunch Val hosted for the WA team she engaged in lively reminiscing with Schneider and Lorraine Malcolm (Statistician). I realized that there was a need to record the stories Val, Shirley and Lorraine shared. When Val came to Perth in September 1991 as a guest of the WASA for the opening of the State Softball Centre at Mirrabooka I negotiated to have several chats with her and Joy Marsland. My fascination grew and I pottered around collecting bits and pieces of information. In 1993 I learnt that noted sports historian Wray Vamplew was working on the history of softball in Australia. I offered to share what I had collected. Shortly afterwards Wray accepted an appointment overseas and the project was left in abeyance. I decided to offer to complete it. In its wisdom the National Sports Research Council required me to complete the full application process for a grant. After some delays I was given approval to proceed. The result was Batter Up! The history of softball in Australia published by the Australian Softball Federation in 1995. This took me way beyond my original intentions for WA softball and into the broad field of sports history. When I retired I determined to fulfill my promise the wonderful people who encouraged me all through Batter Up! Many interruptions and two more decades of softball have finally seen the challenge met.


I grappled for some time with the best way to present what I had gathered. Batter Up! was strictly a chronological record of the ASF and national teams. Softball WA is a thematic presentation tracing the progress of softball in WA from a girls’ game towards a sport for all - females and males from junior ranks to veterans plus the multitude of people who service the sport as umpires, scorers and coaches. ‘Towards’ is intentional since there are still groups to be included.

Throughout the text an overview of relevant national developments precedes the discussion of what happened in WA to establish a context for WA softball responding to a combination of local needs and national directives. The breadth and complexity of national changes since 1995 has been greater than what happened previously and has not been collated in a single text. Hence some sections are more detail to provide a meaningful context.


ORIGINS is a very brief background about the invention of softball in the USA to its introduction to Australia and then Western Australia.

GOVERNANCE focuses on the administration of the sport from the traditional volunteer base through to the business model now in operation.

COMPETITIONS examines each of the main competitions in the order in which they began: women’s club softball, State championships (plus the emergence of Affiliates), men’s club softball, State League Softball and Veterans.

NATIONAL CHAMPIONSHIPS shifts attention to the three phases of national competition: 1949 to 1969 when each State/Territory had one women’s teams; 1970 to 1984 when the women’s championships expanded to include Under 16 and Under 19 divisions; and, 1984 to the present when men commenced playing national championships. Change has been most rapid since 1984 and a separate chapter explains the changes before considering the efforts of the WA teams.

TECHNICAL SERVICES -umpiring, coaching and scoring - are essential for softball to grow and improve. Coaching is addressed in two ways. First attention is paid to the education of coaches, then the focus shifts to addressing the needs of potential State and national representatives. Development is the ubiquitous service aiming to expand softball’s progress towards being a sport for all.

VENUES addresses how the WA softball community has grappled to ‘Find a home of our own’ and in the process establishing the three main venues: Langley Park, Yokine Reserve and the State Softball Centre at Mirrabooka.

AWARDS AND RECOGNITION summarises the awards and recognition earned by both players and administrators. The Life Members have been the backbone of WA softball and a separate chapter outlines the process of becoming a Life Member and the work Life Members perform. To date 33 people have been awarded Life Membership of the WAWSA/WASA. I consider myself very fortunate to have spoken to each of them as I prepared their personal profiles. I am saddened and disappointed that I was not able to finish the text before some passed away. I had access to an abundance of materials from both the national and State offices, however, it is not the practice of the WASA to provide citations to Life Members at the time of their appointment so the profiles have been compiled from personal interviews, minutes and Annual Reports and in some cases media coverage as well as occasional comments about each other.


Profiles of the Life Members have been embedded throughout the book in what I considered the best place to highlight each one. This often proved very difficult to determine since many of the Life Members contributed across the whole sport but hopefully the placements enhance the understanding of the enormous amount each has contributed. From the abundance of materials from national and State level I compiled an extensive set of tables and charts to support the text. However, only the most relevant tables have made it to the Appendices – namely State team lists, placings at national championships, winners of national championships. Despite all of this there are still some aspects such as club and affiliate histories still to be undertaken and I urge those closest to them to think about taking this on.

This project began when I was a staff member in the School of Biomedical and Sports Sciences at Edith Cowan University and I wish to acknowledge the support I was given for initial data collection and analysis.



Dot Amoranti (nee Jenkins)Heather Asquith, Nox Bailey, Peter Baker, Peggy Beckett, Bill Beecham (also known as Bill Wells), Shirley Boyd, Don Brooks, Alf Bunting, Greta Craig, Albert & Pat Dumaresq, Pat Grice (Tatham), Norma Frost (nee Stone), Barbara Groves, 

Evelyn Harvey, Flo Ireland, Val Johnson, Lorraine Malcolm, Joy Marsland (nee Rippin), Roma McKenzie (Piercy), Bob McKibbin, Nina Menner, Connie Montgomery, Kevin Osborne, Lorraine Page, Reg Page, Laurie Prior, Val Prunster, Graeme Rector, Shirley Roberts, 

Shirley Schneider, Don & Lil Smith, Rona Trotter, George Wenn.

I especially thank Shirley Schneider and Lorraine Malcolm for their patience reading and amending early drafts. Shirley also spent many hours ‘putting names to faces’ in the photographs.   Lorraine Mildren and Kath Correll from South Australia became good friends when I interviewed them in the early 1990s for Batter Up! They continued to provide encouragement and suggestions throughout the preparation of this text.   Heather Asquith generously shared her scrapbooks and photo albums with me. The photographs of the early 1950s were produced by Heather on her faithful Brownie box camera.



Dr Jennifer Browne (dec) for sharing her personal softball scrapbook Janet Nowicki, Local Studies Librarian, Perth City Council David Marsh (dec) for lists of State and National qualified umpires to 1986 Margo Koskalainen, OAM, National Director of Umpiring 1985-2004 Staff who have manned the office of the WASA and willingly provided guidance through the storerooms and bookshelves.



Newspapers & Magazines The Australasian Post, The Broadcaster, The Daily News, The Post Community Newspaper, The Sporting Weekly, The Sunday Times, The West Australian, The Western Mail

Miscellaneous -  50 Golden Years. Rookies Softball Club Inc. 1951-2001. Celebrating 50 Remarkable Years. (n.d.)., Barrett, M. (1964). History of softball. (unpublished), The Education Circular (Western Australia), The W.A. Teachers’ Journal, Western Australian State Schools’ Amateur Sports Association Annual Reports, Programs for National Softball Championships 1949 to 2009.


Annual Yearbooks, Annual Reports, Minutes, miscellaneous files and web pages of the Australian Women’s Softball Council, the Australian Softball Federation and Softball Australia., Annual Reports and Minutes of the West Australian Women’s Softball Association and the West Australian Softball Association., Marks, W. R. (June 1977). An assessment of the present and future needs of a comprehensive watering scheme [for] Langley Park. Prepared for the Director of Parks and Recreation and the City Engineer, City of Perth.

Perth City Council Annual Reports/Year Books., Stephenson, G. (1975). The design of central Perth: Some problems and possible solutions. A study made for the Perth Central Area Design Coordinating Committee. Nedlands, WA: University of Western Australia Press.



Embrey, L. (1997). Laying out the bases: Softball in Western Australia 1946-9. In E.Jaggard & J. Ryan (Eds.). Perspectives on sport and society. Studies in Western Australian History 18. Centre for Western Australian History, Department of History, University of Western Australia.


Barker, A. J. & Jackson, L. (1996). Fleeting attraction: A social history of American servicemen in Western Australia during the second World War. Nedlands, WA: University of Western Australia Press., Bealle, M. A. (1957). The softball story. Washington, D.C.: Columbia., Cashman, R. & Weaver, A. (1991). Wicket women: Cricket and women in Australia.Kensington, NSW: University of New South Wales Press. Correll, K. & Mildren, L. (2006). Diamond duels. Women’s softball in South Australia.South Australia: Correll & Mildren. Dickson, P. (1994). The Worth book of softball. A celebration of America’s national pastime. New York; Facts on File. Easton, Leonard A. (1971). Stirling City. Nedlands, WA: University of Western Australia Press. Embrey, L. (1995). Batter Up! The history of softball in Australia. Bayswater, Vic: Australian Softball Federation. Mitchell, G. (1988). Pursuing excellence. A biographical history of Western Australia’s leading sportswomen. Perth, WA: Women’s Sport Foundation of Western Australia. Noren, A. T. (1947). Softball The Barnes Sports Library. New York; A. S. Barnes. Stoddart, B. (1981). Sport and society 1890-1940: A foray. In T. Stannage (Ed.), A new history of Western Australia. Nedlands, WA: University of Western Australia Press. Veroni, K. J. (1998). Coaching fastpitch softball successfully. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

About the Author

Lynn Embrey lectured in Physical and Health Education, Sports Science and Sport Management at Edith Cowan University. Originally from Victoria, Lynn played in the Melbourne winter competition in the late 1960s. Her team, Wingers, was coached by Marj Dwyer. In summer she played in the Shepparton competition. One of her teammates in Shamrocks was Margo Koskelanien. Despite such close association with UICs Lynn admits to never quite mastering the technicalities of the rules. After relocating to Western Australia and completing post-graduate studies, Lynn assisted Shirley Schneider with the fitness testing and preparation of the WA Women’s Senior team in the late 1980s and early 1990s. She managed the WA team in 1993. During this time she became intrigued by the success of the early WA teams and so began her historical studies of the sport. She wrote Batter Up! The history of softball in Australia which the Australian Softball Federation published in 1995. 

Some confusion exists over the title of the shield; it is clearly engraved as Gilleys Shield, not Gilley’s.  More detailed discussions about the origin and growth of softball in different parts of the world can be found in the following texts for which full reference details appear in the Acknowledgements: Bealle, The story of softball 1957; Dickson, The Worth book of softball 1994; Embrey, Batter Up! The history of softball in Australia, 1995; Embrey, International encyclopedia of women and sports, 2001; Noren, Softball, 1947. AJ Barker & L Jackson, Fleeting attraction: A social history of American servicemen in Western Australia during the Second World War. University of Western Australia Press, Nedlands WA, 1996. L Embrey, Laying out the bases. Softball in Western Australia 1946-9, in E Jaggard & J Ryan (eds.), Perspectives on sport and society. Studies in Western Australian History 18, Centre for Western Australian History, Department of History, University of Western Australia, Nedlands, WA, p. 25-34. Migrant fights “senseless rules”, Daily News, Monday 29 September, 1947. Carl Renshaw, then secretary of the American Club, made this claim. ‘Two softball matches’, Daily News, 4 December 1946, p. 9; ‘Softball matches’, The West Australian, 7 December 1946, p. 11.  Johnson, Interview, September, 1991.  ‘Softball planned for ANZAC Day’, Daily News, 12 April 1947, p. 11. The article noted that if Perth Oval was not available ‘the association hopes to use the regular softball field at the Esplanade at the foot of Hill Street’.  ‘Opinion’, Daily News, 22 April 1947, p. 4. The writer, “One of the Disgusted”, stated that it was to be a baseball match between their team and the Americans. ‘Softball plans’, Daily News, 26 April 1947, p. 10. ‘Baseball Opening’, Daily News, 3 May 1947, p. 7. Netball was known as women’s basketball until 1970. Netball will be used throughout this text to avoid confusion with basketball. ‘Sports Shorts’, Daily News, 2 July 1947, p. 9. Embrey, Laying out the bases. Softball in Western Australia 1946-9. M Stell, Half the race: A history of Australian women in sport. Angus & Robertson, North Ryde, NSW, 1991, p. 55. R Cashman & A Weaver, Wicket women: Cricket and women in Australia. University of New South Wales Press, Kensington, NSW, 1991, p. 114. Star wants more girl cricketers, Daily News, Monday 22 November, 1947. ‘Schoolgirls must show speed’, Says Mary Ferber … , Daily News, 8 March 1949, p.9. ‘Answering, softball news’. Daily News, 7 April 1949, p. 11.

Chapter 2

The Sunday Times, (1 February 1953).  to walk a few yards. p.29 Schmidt, H. (12 March 1953). Hit it where they ain’t. Australian POST. p.17-18The sequence of topics has been retained in the paraphrasing of the minutes to demonstrate the diversity of topics and rapid switching between topics. Val Johnston, W.A. Women’s Softball Association President’s Annual Report 1956/7, p.5. Colin Smith and Shirley Roberts referred to the end of the doldrums in comments about the 1967-68 season. 6. computing glitch C Pummer, ‘New official says sport can save youth, The West Australian, 19 September 1963, p. 42. 8. Youth Sport and Recreation has undergone numerous name changes including a period as the Ministry of Sport and Recreation before returning to department status. Correct titles were not always used by sports organisations.  9.An Affiliate may conduct competitions whereas as Associate Association may not. 10. Ian Boyd married Shirley Kennewell who played with Hell’s Angels in the 1960s.

Chapter 3

  1. ‘Softball plans’, Daily News, 29 August 1947, p. 12.
  2. ‘Softball Grand Final’, The West Australian, 24 March 1949, p. 15.
  3. According to the Minutes the National Catholic Girls’ Movement (NCGM) had representatives at several meetings in the 1948-49 season but do not appear to have fielded a team until the following season.
  4. Heather Asquith, Interview, June 2010.
  5. ‘Softball Grand Final’, The West Australian, 24 March 1949, p. 1
  6. ‘Flying Club’s 2nd softball title’, The Sunday Times, 27 March 1949.
  7. ‘Opinion’, Daily News, 4 October 1949, p. 4.
  8. ‘How a softball fan could help’, Opinion, Daily News, 18 October 1949, p. 4.
  9. ‘In Mary Ferber’s Opinion’, Daily News, 13 October 1949, p. 13.
  10. On the ball at softball, Daily News, 16 October 1949, p. 16.
  11. More than 220 team/club names have been listed in the fixtures for women’s/summer softball over 61 seasons. Forty-two teams/clubs have field A grade sides. Clubs with teams in A grade have usually had teams in several other grades and in total have contributed between 30 and 76 percent of teams per season. Each team/club is worthy of its own special history and future studies should consider this.
  12. Pat Grice, Interview, January 2003.
  13. Minutes 28 May and 23 July, 1951. H Schmitt, ‘Hit it where they ain’t’, The Australasian POST, 12 March 1953, p.15-16.
  14. ‘Young team scrapes in’, The Daily News, 6 February 1952, p.15.
  15. ‘Nedlands Rookies win softball final’The Broadcaster, 1 March 1952, p. 29.
  16. ‘Over 7,000 at softball final’, The Broadcaster, 5 April 1952, p.25.
  17. 1. Bunting, Interview, July 2007.
  18. Schmitt, ‘Hit it where they ain’t’, p.15-16.
  19. V Johnson, W.A. Women’s Softball Association President’s Annual Report 1956/57, p.2.
  20. Rookies Softball Club Inc., 50 Golden Years: Celebrating 50 remarkable Years, 2001, p. Milestones and memories.
  21. V Johnson, W.A. Women’s Softball Association President’s Annual Report 1956/57, p.2.
  22. These prices were listed by Taylors Sports Store in their advertisement in the program for the Australian Softball Championships, Perth, 24th to 31st March, 1952, p.6.
  23. Prices in advertisement for Boans Sports Department in the program for the Australian National Championships, Perth, 24th to 31st March, 1952, p. 14.
  24. The Western Mail, 1 November 1951, p. 7.
  25. Unfortunately, the fixture cards/books are not available for the seasons from 1954- 55 to1957-58, and thus exact data are not available for the period to which Johnson is referring.
  26. Cashman & Weaver, Wicket women: Cricket and women in Australia, p. 112.
  27. J Gregory, City of Light, A history of Perth since the 1950s, City of Perth, Western Australia, p.184. The CBD accounted for 37.7 percent of all metropolitan sales. By 1961-62 the percentage was 30.3.
  28. While clubs/officials were located in particular suburbs, they did not necessarily draw all their players from that area. 
  29. Western Australian Softball Association1976 Yearbook, p. 27.
  30. Shirley Schneider, Interview, May 1992.
  31. The Taylors’ Sports Store A grade trophy shows Demons as premiers in two seasons.
  32. Lorraine Page, Interview, December 1997.
  33. Schneider, Interview, May 1992.
  34. Gregory, City of Light, p. 184.
  35. Val Prunster, Interview, April 2008.
  36. Don Brooks, Interview, 2008.
  37. Embrey, Batter Up! p. 118.
  38. Blue Jays had toured South Australia as a club team in the early 1970s but did not compete in any ASF sanctioned competitions.

Chapter 4

1. In later years Northam was a member of Avon District Softball Association and hence does not appear as a separate entity.

2. Mercury. ‘Softball Association plans country week’. The Broadcaster, 4 July 1953,p.16.

3. This Berlei Shield is assumed to be that originally used by women’s baseball.

4. Gnoweranup was a member of the Central Great Southern Softball Association which was affiliated with the WASA in the early 1980s. 

5. Apart from results engraved on perpetual trophies, no records of the Men’s State Championships have been located. Nor have summaries of the Championships conducted since merger of the WAMSL with the WASA been regularly included in the Annual Report.

6. Corrigin was a member of the Eastern Districts Softball Association.

7. Lists of Country and Indigenous State Representatives were compiled by Shirley Schneider. Not all clubs/ associations of players were known so exact figures are probably slightly higher.

8. Grice, ‘Western Australia’. Softball News, 1 (2), 1981, p.16.

Chapter 5

  1. ‘Yank 23 is to coach WA women’. Daily News, 7 December 1948, p. 5.
  2. “Promise” The game of the world. Copyright A.S.O. 1965.
  3. Embrey, Batter Up! The history of softball in Australia, p. 119-125.
  4. Bob McKibbin, Interview, June 2008.
  5. Western Australian Softball League (Inc). Fixtures 1980. For a number of seasons the Minutes of the Inaugural Meeting of the WA Men’s Softball League were included in the Fixture book. The 1980 fixture book omitted the word Men’s from its cover but other books were specific with either an ‘M’ or Men’s.
  6. Letter, Nox Bailey to John Reid, October 1982, ASF files.
  7. (unknown) History of Mens Softball in WA. The Minutes of the Inaugural Meeting and lists of office bearers, successful teams and best and fairest players have been preserved in a small green folder thought to have been compiled by Nox Bailey and handed to the WASA for safe keeping, nd..
  8. See Embrey, L. (1995). Batter Up!
  9. Letter (June 1995) from John Reid to the author in response to a request to read the draft text for Batter Up!.
  10. As 7 above.
  11. McKibbin, Interview, June 2008.
  12. Graeme Rector, Interview, September 2008.
  13. Fixture books have not been found for 1977 to 1979 and from 1985 to 1990. The 2006 book is also missing. Nor did The Winter Competition always ensure that a summary of each season’s achievements and issues was included in the WASA Annual Reports. Thus there is a lack of continuity in record keeping. 
  14. History of men’s softball in WA. Nd.
  15. Flyer contained in ASF records relating to men’s softball.
  16. R Gibson, ‘Softball club backs banned girl’. The West Australian, 1 October 1998, p. 5; R Gibson, ‘Biology gives boys the sports edge: witness’. The West Australian, 3 October 1998,p. 30; R Gibson, ‘Softball’s sex ban holds firm’, The West Australian, 27 October 1998, p. 49; S Brook, ‘Softball a game for boys’. The Australian, 27 October 1998, p. 3; Gibson & Gibson Barristers & Solicitors. PressRelease. Equal Opportunities Tribunal. Lisa Jernakoff – v- West Australian Softball Association, 30 October 1998; Lacrosse Association of WA, ‘Equal opportunity’ clarified, Issue 6, December 1998, p. 22.
  17. Letter (7 December 1981) from Richard Campbell, President, WAMSL, to John McLennan, Secretary, NSWSA.
  18. As for 9 above.

Chapter 6

1. Western Australian State Softball League. Playing Rules and Regulations 1992/1993 Season. Clause 4.5 (2).

2. R Newcomen, ‘Magic roll on to six straight’. The West Australian, 16 November 1992, p. 92.

3. R Newcomen, ‘New state league a hit with Ebert’. The West Australian, 14 November 1992, p. 79.

4. R Newcomen, ‘Bunbury boost for softball’. The West Australian, 24 September 1993, p. 79.

5. R Newcomen, ‘Canadians boost softball league’. The West Australian, 1 October 1994, p. 103. 

6. R Newcomen, ‘Softball pitches in with new image’. The West Australian, 30 September 1995, p. 113.

7. Pat O’Connor, Proposal for changes to State League, nd. 

8. Letter, Meagan Johnson to Phil Matthewson, President of WASA, 5 April 2000.

9. WASA Executive Meeting Minutes, 12 April 2000.

10. Smokefree Western Fastpitch State Softball League. Minutes of AGM, 19 April 2000.

11. Smokefree Western Fastpitch State Softball League, Minutes, 18 May 2000. Letter was acknowledged in incoming correspondence but there was no further mention of it.

12. Letter, Gary Collie to WASA, 27 April 2001.

13. Letter, N Mizen to Smokefree Western Fastpitch Softball League, 10 July 2001.

14. K Pyke & V McEvoy, State League Competition 2003/04 and Beyond, nd. 

15. D Salmon, Western Fastpitch State League 2003/04, nd.

16. N Delpero, Draft proposal for State League Softball, and.

17. C Hoffman, State League Softball in Western Australia, 14 August 2003.

Chapter 7

1. For a more detailed explanation of the origin of the Australian Masters Games see The Oxford Companion to Australian Sport.

2. The author was present and noted this comment.

3. Reg Page, Interview, May 2008

4. L Page, Interview, February 1998.

5. Malcolm, Interview, May 2008.

6. R Page, Interview, June 1998.

7. L & R Page, Interview, November 2008.


Chapter 8

1. Roberts, Interview, May 1995.

2. M Lake, Getting equal: the history of Australian feminism, Allen & Unwin, St Leonards, NSW, 1999, p. 187. Roberts, interview, May 1995.

4. Roberts, Interview, May 1995.

5. Asquith, Interview, June 2010.

6. Roberts, Interview, May, 1995.

7. AWSC Minutes, Friday 16 March 1951, p. 2.

8. Confirmed in photo caption in The Daily News, 22 March 1952, p. 7.

9. ‘No hold-up to bowls carnival’. The Daily News, 5 March 1952, p. 15.

10. Roberts, Interview, May 1995.

11. Roberts, Interview, May 1995.

12. Grice, Interview, January 2003.

13. B Beecham, Interview, May 1992.

14. WAWSA Minutes, 22 and 23 March, 1952.

15. AWSC Minutes, 24 March 1952, p. 2.

16. Johnson, Interview, September, 1991.

17. ‘Backs to the bowls, men: A softball game is on’. The Daily News, March 1957.

18. Trotter, Interview, February, 2003.

19. ‘Women’s State softball team’, The Broadcaster, 16 February 1952, p. 25.

20. As 19 above.

21. Beecham, Interview, May 1992.

22. Beecham, Interview, May, 1992.

23. ‘Great win for WA’. The Daily News,28 March, p.7.

24. Grice, Interview, January 2003.

25. WA chance in softball, The Daily News, Saturday 29 March 1952, p. 1.

26. Beecham, Interview, May 1992.

27. ‘Over 7,000 at softball final’, The Broadcaster, 5 April 1952, p. 25.

28. As 27 above.

29. Minutes, AWSC Meeting, Sunday 30 March 1952, p. 3.

30. Australian Softball Championships, Perth, 1952, Souvenir program, p. 5.

31. Beecham, Interview, May, 1992.

32. ‘Easy win for Australia’. The Daily News, 31 March 1952, p. 2.

33. “Spotlight on Sport” at Youth Night, The West Australian, 2 October 1952, p. 8; “The spirit of youth in pageant”, The West Australian, 10 October 1952, p.5.

34. Beecham, Interview, 1992.

35. ‘Perth Basic Wage Stops Rising – After 6 years’, The Daily News, 27 January 1953, p. 1.

36. The Daily News, Opinion Column from 29 January to 7 February, 1953. 

37. The Broadcaster, 7 February 1953,p. 20.

38. Flo Ireland is specifically mentioned by Cashman & Weaver, Wicket women: Cricket and women in Australia, as one of the players who defected from cricket to softball in the 1950s, 1991, p.112.

39. ‘Lucky Judy Smalpage’, The Broadcaster, 28 February 1953,p.15,

40. Schmitt, Hit it where they ain’t. p. 16-17.

41. As 40 above.

42. Sporting Weekly, March, 1953.

43. ‘Softball. S.P.C.C. – Victoria Park Matched in vital game’. Sporting Weekly. 16 January 1953, p. 7.

44. Roberts, Interview, May 1995.

45. Beecham, Interview, May, 1992.

46. Grice, Interview, January 2003.

47. ‘Coach gets hose down’, The Broadcaster, 25 April 1953, p.18.

48. Grice, Interview, January 2003.

49. Australian Women’s Softball Championship, Adelaide, 1956, Programme, p. 7.

50. SG Ebert, ‘The girls who back-stopped baseball’. MAN, August 1955, p. 50.

51. Australian Women’s Softball Championship, Adelaide, 1956, Programme, p. 7.

52. Grice, Interview, January 2003.

53. The Mercury, 27 March 1958, p. 26.

54. ‘Softball ‘Dream Hit’ won match’, The Mercury, 28 March 1958, p. 18.

55. ‘WA to fight out final’, The Mercury, 29 March 1958, p. 33.

56. Selectors at fault, Sport Soapbox, Daily News, 17 February 1959, p.4; Three players from top teams, Sport Soapbox, Daily News, 18 February, 1959, p. 4

57. Johnson, Interview, Spetember 1991.

58. Settlers from America. 45 due in Sydney today. (1947, Monday 22 September). The West Australian, p. 1

59. P Higgins, ‘Softball could be harder for WA’, The West Australian, 1 March 1960, p. 14.

60. Johnson, Interview, September, 1991.

61. Embrey, Batter Up!.p.43.

62. Schneider, Interview, May 1992.

63. L Quarrell, ‘SA’s first defeat in softball’. The Advertiser, 21 March 1962, p. 19.

64. Schneider, Interview, May 1992.

65. Gregory, City of Light, Chapter 2.

66. In an interview Bill Beecham recounted how Bandy McPherson had been imported from NSW to pitch for Perth Tigers in the night baseball competition in 1955. In one match against Swans, fourth time he came up to bat, much to his frustration, he was walked. Beecham consoled him with the fact that his three runs had helped Perth Tigers to victory but McPherson wanted the fourth one, too. “He’d say something and then he’d go out and do it.” May 1992.

67. Red faces on diamond. (1955). The Daily News.

68. .Higgins, Pat (Wednesday, 11 October, 1961).Demons enter senior softballThe West Australian, Page for Women, Sport. 1969 Coach ordered from ground. The West Australian, 23 March 1963, p. 24.

70. Gregory, City of Light, p. 111.

71. ‘WA enters semi-final, WA 7 ACT 1’, The West